Fatima Jinnah Dental College Karachi

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The Fatima Jinnah Dental College Karachi was established in 1993 and is being run and managed by a duly registered Fatima Jinnah Dental College & Hospital Trust. The College is affiliated to the University of Karachi and is recognized by the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PMDC). The College has a four-year course of studies leading to the degree of Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS). The course of studies being followed is the one prescribed by the PMDC and adopted by the University of Karachi.

About Mohtarma Fatima Jinnah She was born in Karachi on 30th July 1893. The Late Miss Jinnah was a boarder of Convent School, Bombay from 1902 to 1906. She joined St. Patrick School (Gandala) in 1906 and passed Matric in 1910. She passed her Senior Cambridge as private candidate in 1913. The Mohtarama joined Dr. Ahmed Dental College, Calcutta, the only Dental College in India in 1919 and qualified as a Dentist in 1922. Established a private clinic on Abdul Rahman Street in Bombay and also gave free service at Dhobi Talloo Municipal Clinic. In 1929,Miss Jinnah joined Quaid-e-Azam in the struggle for creation of Pakistan. In so doing she sacrificed her professional & private life. She was a source of great inspiration to him during difficult times. Indeed, the values that Miss Fatima Jinnah exemplified in her life-time are still relevant to us. While they are a source of inspiration to us in our present predication, her life provides us with a role model. Why Mohtarama Fatima Jinnah During the national presidential election campaign of 1964 late Ms. Fatima Jinnah, the younger sister of Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the Founder of Pakistan, expressed the wish that their should be a dental college at Karachi. Dr. Baqar Askary who was then the President of the Dow Medical College Students Union and President of National Students Federation while supporting Ms. Jinnah’s election campaign promised that a dental college would be established in Karachi. The campaign was launched in Dec. 1988 and by mid 1989, it was made clear that the Government had no intention of establishing a dental college at Karachi. However, the Federal Government in its Health Policy announced later, allowed medical & dental colleges to be established in the private sector Establishing a Private Dental College in Karachi : The FJDC Story It is a pioneer institution devoted to the teaching of dentistry, independently and not as a department of any medical college. The college is named “Fatima Jinnah Dental College” to pay respects and dedicated to the memory of Late Mohtarma Fatima Jinnah, who was herself, a Dentist. Her publicly expressed desire that there should be a dental college at Karachi was at last fulfilled. This college was established in the University of Karachi academic year 1992-93. It is significant, that 1993 was the centenary year of the birth of the Mohtarma and the establishment of this college is a gift to the Nation on this auspicious occasion. With intimation to the Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health, the Pakistan Medical & Dental Council and the University of Karachi, Fatima Jinnah Dental College was born on the map of Pakistan. The Fatima Jinnah Dental College was established and is being run and managed by a duly registered Fatima Jinnah Dental College & Hospital Trust. It is a public charitable Trust with Syed Hashim Raza, one of the very senior civil servants and the administrator of the Estate of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, as its Chairman. Fatima Jinnah Dental College has produced over 600 top dental professionals. The college today boosts to be the largest in the country and second to none.

Fatima Jinnah Dental College 
Pre Clinical Campus
Address : AM-1/B , BLK-D BHITTAI COLONY KORANGI CREEK KARACHI.
Phone # : 5111963 – 65
Fax # : 021-5111964

Fatima Jinnah Dental Hospital
Clinical Campus
Address : Street # 1 , Building # 1 , 100 Foot Road Azam Town,
Karachi, Pakistan.
Phone # : 5801741 – 42
Fax # : 5889710

For Admission Contact : 
Mr. Syed Saghar Hassan
Cell # : 0321-2599571 – 0333 – 3751881
Phone # : 5111963 – 65

1st Year Curriculum

2.1- First Professional B.D.S:
2.1.1- Human Anatomy, Embryology, Histology and Neuroanatomy.

2.1.1.1- GOAL:

The students should gain the knowledge and insight into, the functional anatomy of the
normal human head and neck, functional histology and an appreciation of the genetic basis of inheritance and disease, and the embryological development of clinically important structures. So that relevant anatomical & scientific foundations are laid down for the clinical years of the BDS course.

2.1.1.2- OBJECTIVES:
A). KNOWLEDGE & UNDERSTANDING:
At the end of the 1st year BDS course in Anatomical Sciences the undergraduate student
is Expected to:
1. Know the normal disposition of the structures in the body while clinically examining a patient and while conducting clinical procedures.
2. Know the anatomical basis of disease and injury.
3. Know the microscopic structure of the various tissues, a pre-requisite for understanding of the disease processes.
4. Know the nervous system to locate the site of lesions according to the sensory and or motor deficits encountered.
5. Have an idea about the basis of abnormal development, critical stages of development, effects of teratogens, genetic mutations and environmental hazards.
6. Know the sectional anatomy of head neck and brain to read the features in radiographs and pictures taken by modern imaging techniques.
7. Know the anatomy of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation.

B). SKILLS
1. To locate various structures of the body and to mark the topography of the living anatomy.
2. To identify various tissues under microscope.
3. To identify the features in radiographs and modern imaging techniques.
4. To detect various congenital abnormalities.

2.1.1.3- AN OUTLINE OF THE COURSE CONTENT:
1. General anatomy: Introduction of anatomical terms and brief outline of various systems of the body.
2. Regional anatomy of head & neck with astrology of bones of head & neck, with emphasis on topics of dental importance.
3. General disposition of thoracic, abdominal & pelvic organs.
4. The regional anatomy of the sites of intramuscular & intra vascular injections, & lumbar puncture.
5. General embryology & systemic embryology with respect to development of head & neck.
6. Histology of basic tissues and of the organs of gastrointestinal, respiratory, Endocrine, excretory systems & gonads.

2.1.1.4- SEMESTER I:

Course work:
GROSS ANATOMY I:::
1. Introduction to Gross anatomy:
a. Introduction to anatomy body planes & movements
b. Skeletal system-bones.
1. Axial Skeleton
2. Appendicular Skeleton
3. Functions of bone
4. Classification on the basis of shape, development, region and structure.
5. General concepts of development & ossification of bones
6. Parts of bones
7. Blood supply of long bones
8. Applied Anatomy of bones

c. Joints
1. Structural classification
2. Regional classification
3. Functional classification
4. Characteristics and classification of Synovial joints
5. Movements of Synovial joints
6. Anatomy of joints with reference to dislocation, sprain and inflammation

d. Muscle
1. Parts of a muscle
2. Classification
3. Blood supply and nerve supply of muscle
4. Neuromuscular junction
5. Applied anatomy of muscle with reference to spasm, paralysis, atrophy and regeneration.

e. Cardiovascular system
1. Introduction to C.V.S
2. Types of circulation
3. Anastamosis

f. Introduction to Lymphatic system
1. Lymph node
2. Lymph capillary
3. Functions

2. Gross Anatomy Head and Neck: Face and Scalp
a. A brief account of Scalp (blood supply & nerve supply.
b. Muscles of Facial expression
c. Blood supply and nerve Supply of face.
d. Description of Anatomical Regions of head (Temporal, Infratemporal, Pterygopalatine, Parotid)
e. Description of Muscles of Mastication
f. Tempomandibular joint
g. Oral Cavity
h. Tongue
i. Palate.

Neuroanatomy I:
1. Introduction to nervous system
Description of Structure & function of neuron and neuroglial cells, Nerve fibers and peripheral nerves.
2. Central Nervous System
Description of central nervous system and meninges, spinal cord, medulla, pons, cerebellum, mid brain

Histology I:
1. Introduction to Body Tissues
A Brief description of Cell structure, Epithelial tissue, Connective tissue, Cartilage & Bone, Muscles & Circulatory system
2. Neural Tissue
Description of Neural Tissue (Neuron, Neuroglia, Ganglia), cerebella cortex, cerebral cortex.
3. Immune System
Description of Immune system and Lymph tissues (Tonsils, Thymus, Spleen).

Embryology I:
1. Male & female reproductive systems.
2. Cell Division and Gametogensis
3. Fertilization, cleavage, blast cyst formation and implantation
4. Development during second week
5. Development during third week
6. Embryonic period
7. Fetal period
8. Fetal membrane (amniotic cavity, yolk sac, allantoids, umbilical cord and placenta)
9. Introduction to Genetics and Teratogenesis

LAB WORK:
Head and Neck Dissection: Introduction to Osteology of Skull and Vertebrae
Histology Methods of Study: Epithelial and Connective Tissue
Histological Methods of Study: Nervous and Lymphatic Tissue
Histological Methods of Study: Salivary Glands and Tongue
Histological Methods of Study: Endocrine Glands

2.1.1.5- SEMESTER II:

Course work:
GROSS ANATOMY II:
1. Triangles of Neck
Description of Cervical fascia, Triangle’s & Their Divisions, Contents of Anterior Triangle, Contents of post Triangle. Sub-Mandibular region Great Vessels of the neck.
2. Deep structures of Neck
Description of Deep structures of Neck (Pharynx, Larynx, Thyroid glands, Cervical Plexus, Brachial Plexus, Trachea / Oesophagus, Pre-vertebral region.)
3. Orbital, cochlear and Nasal Cavity
Description of Ear, Eye and orbital cavity, Nasal cavity, Para-nasal air sinuses
4. Thorax and Abdomen
Brief description of Thorax (Lungs, Heart, and rib cage) brief description of Abdomen (Liver, Stomach, Intestine, Kidney, and Spleen).

NEUROANATOMY II:
1. Cerebral Cortex and Associated Structures
An account of Structure and organization of cerebral hemisphere, Motor areas, Ventricular system & C.S.F. formations.
2. Cranial Nerves
Description of Cranial nerve Nuclei, Olfactory and Optic nerve, Occulomoter/ Trochlear / Abducent, Trigiminal nerve, Facial Nerve, Vertibulocochlear Nerve, Glossopharyngeal Nerve, Vagus, Accessory and Hypoglossal nerve.
3. Thalamus and Hypothalamus
Thalamus and Hypothalamus, Autonomic nervous system, Blood Supply of Brain, Dural Venous Sinuses.

HISTOLOGY II:
1. Glandular Epithelium and Endocrine Glands
Description of Glandular Epithelia (Extxinsic Digestive gland, Salivary Glands, Pancreas, Liver, Gall bladder), Description of Endocrine Glands (Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland, Adrenal gland, Pituitary Gland, Pineal Gland).
2. Oral Mucosa and Oral Cavity
Description of Oral mucosa and associated structures (Tongue, Teeth, Gums, Pharynx, Hard palate, Soft palate and lips.)
3. Esophagus, stomach
4. The respiratory system:
5. Nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, larynx and trachea, Bronchi and lungs

EMBRYOLOGY II:
1. Development of Head & Neck, Branchial Apparatus
a. Bronchial apparatus
b. Tongue
c. Thyroid
d. Pituitary
e. Upper respiratory system
f. Development of face and palate and a brief overview of development of teeth.
2. The digestive system
3. The respiratory system
4. The cardiovascular system
5. The musclo-skeleton system
a. Development of skeleton
b. Development of muscles

6. Special Senses
7. Development of nervous system

LABWORK:
Head and Neck Dissection: Face and Scalp
Head and Neck Dissection: Oral Cavity and Associated Structures
Head and Neck Dissection: Triangles and Deep structures of Neck

CLINICAL PROCEDURES:
a) Intramuscular injections: Demonstration on a dissected specimen and on a living person of the following sites of injection.
Deltoid muscle and its relation to the axillary nerve and radial nerve.
Gluteal region and the relation of the sciatic nerve.
Vastus lateralis muscle.

b) Intravenous injections & venesection: Demonstration of veins in the dissected specimen and on a living person
1. Median cubital vein
2. Cephalic vein
3. Basilic vein
4. Long saphenous vein

c) Arterial pulsations: Demonstration of arteries on a dissected specimen and feeling of pulsation of the following arteries on a living person.
Superficial temporal
Facial
Carotid
Axillary
Brachial
Radial
Ulnar
Femoral
Popliteal
Dorsalispedis

d) Lumbar puncture: Demonstration on a dissected specimen of the spinal cord, cauda equina & epidural space and the inter vertebral space between L4 & L5.

2.1.1.5- RECOMMENDED BOOKS
Latest editions of the books recommended should be consulted.
• ANATOMY
GRAY’S ANATOMY to be used as a reference book
Netters Atlas of Anatomy.
CLINICAL ANATOMY BY SNELL
CLINICALY ORIENTED ANATOMY BY K.L.MOORE
RJ LAST’S Anatomy – McMinn
• HISTOLOGY
1. JANCQUERA TEXTBOOK OF HISTOLOGY
2. COLOURD ATLAS OF HISTOLOGY BY DEFIERO
• NEUROANATOMY:
SNELLS NEUROANATOMY.
• EMBRYOLOGY:
1. LANGMAN’S EMBRYOLOGY
2. CLINICALY ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT ANATOMY BY K.L.MOORE

2.1.2- PHYSIOLOGY
2.1.2.1- GOAL:
The broad goal of teaching undergraduate students in Physiology aims at providing the student comprehensive knowledge of the normal functions of the organ systems of the body to facilitate an understanding of the physiological basis of health and disease.
2.1.2.2- OBJECTIVES:
A. KNOWLEDGE & UNDERSTANDING:
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Explain the normal functioning of all the organ systems and their interactions for well-coordinated total body function.
2. Assess the relative contribution of each organ system towards the maintenance of the ilieu interior.
3. List the physiological principles underlying the pathogenesis and treatment of disease.

B. SKILLS
At the end of the course, the student shall be able to:
1. Conduct experiments designed for the study of physiological phenomena
2. Interpret experimental and investigative data
3. Distinguish between normal and abnormal data derived as a result of tests which he /she has performed and observed in the laboratory.

2.1.2.3- SEMESTER I:
Basic Concepts Clinical / Applied Concepts

General Physiology / Cell
Functional organization of human body Abnormalities of the cell & its organelles
Homeostasis
Control system in the body
Cell membrane and its functions
Transport through cell membrane
Genetics
Blood
Composition and General Functions
Plasma proteins
Red Blood Cell (Erythropoisis) Anemia
Haemonglobin & Blood Blood indices in various disorders
Indices, Iron metabolism, Fate of Hb
White Blood Cells Leucopoiesis, Leucocytosis
Leucopoiesis, functions Platelets Thrombocytopaenia
Haemostasis Clotting disorders (Haemophilia etc)
Blood Groups Blood Grouping / Cross
Blood Transfusion & Complications Matching & Significance immunity
Reticuloendothelial systems, spleen

Basic Concepts Clinical / Applied Concepts

Nerve and muscle
The neuron-structure & functions
Properties of Nerve Fibers Nerve conduction studies
Physiology of action Potential EMG
Including compound action potentials
Conduction of Nerve impulse, Nerve Nerve Injury
Degeneration and regeneration
Synapses
Structure of the muscle
Skeletal muscle contraction Rigor Mortis & Contractures
Isometric and isotonic contraction
Smooth muscle contraction
Neuromuscular transmission Myasthenia Gravis
Excitation-contraction coupling Motor Unit
Neuromuscular Blockers
Cardio Vascular system
Introducing to heart & circulation Correlation of cardiac cycle with ECG & heart sounds
Physiology of cardiac muscle
Action potential in atrial & ventricular
Muscle and pacemaker potential
Regulation of cardiac functions
Cardiac impulse-origin & propagation Significance of Apex beat/ abnormalities
Cardiac cycle-various events
ECG-Recording & interpretation ECG interpretation in cardiac muscle Abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias
Arrhythmias-mechanism of Development Flutter, Fibrillation-Ectopics
Functional types of blood vessels Haemodynamics of blood flow
Local control of blood flow Conduction defects
Systemic circulation,
Characteristics and control
Regulation of peripheral resistance
Arterial pulse Jugular venous pulse
Arterial blood pressure (short/long Term regulation) Radial / other pulse
Cardiac output (Regulation / measurement) Heart sound/murmurs Hypertension, types & effects
Venous return & regulation Sounds Clinical evaluation of heart
Coronary circulation And murmurs Ischemic Heart disease Heart failure
Pulmonary circulation Echocardiogram
Cerebral circulation Types of shock
Cardiovascular changes during exercise
LABWORK:
1. To study the different part of a microscope.
2. Methods of drawing blood for experimental purpose.
3. Study of Neubauer chamber
4. To determine the total erythrocyte counts in human blood.
5. To determine the total WBC count in human blood.
6 To study the differential leukocyte count.
7. To study the osmotic fragility of RBC’s.
8. Estimation of Hb in human blood by Sahli’s Heamoglobinometer.
9. To determine the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
10. Determination of blood groups.
11. To determine the bleeding time.
12. To determine the clotting time.
13. To determine prothrombin time.

2.1.2.4- SEMESTER II:
Basic Concepts Clinical / Applied Concepts
Gastrointestinal Tract
Structure and General Functions
Enteric nervous system (Gut Brain)
Mastication, Swallowing and their control Dysphagia, achlasia of esophagus
Functions and movements of Stomach Examination of abdomen Peptic Ulcer, Pancreatitis
Small intestine Gastric function tests
Functions and movements of large Intestine
Hormones of GIT
Vomiting and its pathway Vomiting and its effects
Defecation and its pathway Diarrhoea, Constipation
Functions of Liver Jaundice, Liver function tests

Nervous System

Organization of Nervous System

Classification of nerve fibers
Properties of Synaptic transmission
Neuro transmitters and neuropetides
Types and function of sensory Receptors Receptors & Neurotransmitter (applied aspect)
Functions of spinal cord, ascending tracts
Reflex action / muscle tone Interpretation of Reflexes
Muscle spindle / muscle tone UMN / LMN Lesion – features and Localization
Tactile, temperature and pain Injuries and diseases of spinal
Sensations structure of cerebral Cortex Cord, Analgesia System
Sensory Cortex Disorders of cranial nerves
Motor Cortex
Motor pathways, pyramidal & extra Pyramidal) Hemiplegia / Paraplegia
Basal ganglia, connections and functions of Vestibular Apparatus / Regulation of Parkinsonism and other lesions Sleep Disorder
Posture & Equilibrium
Reticular formation
Physiology of sleep / EEG
Physiology of memory Higher mental function
Assessment

Basic Concepts Clinical / Applied Concepts

Respiratory System

Organization / functions of Respiratory Tract.
Functions of Lungs (respiratory & non Respiratory) Types of respiratory (intrapleural, pressure, pneumothorax, effusion)
Mechanics of breathing Atelactasis
Protective reflexes
Lung volume and capacities Obstructive / restrictive lung Diaseases (FEV1 / FVC)
Dead space
Diffusion of gases (gas law, composition)
Ventilation / Perfusion Abnormal
Ventilation / Perfusion
Transport of CO2 in blood
Regulation of respiration Respiratory
(Nervous / Chemical)
Abnormal breathing Asphyxia
Hypoxia—types and effects Hypoxia, Cyanosis, dyspnoea
Physiology of Cyanosis Artificial respiration
Physiology of high altitude, space deep Oxygen Therapy
Sea diving
Oxygen dept Caission’s disease

Basic Concepts Clinical / Applied Concepts

Physiology of speech Abnormalities of speech
Thalamus—Nuclei & Functions Hypothaiamus & limbic system. Thalamic syndrome Lesion of Hypothalamus
limbic system.
Cerebrospinal fluid Regulation of body temperature function of Skin. Hydrocephalus
Automatic nervous system
Physiology of aging
Special senses
Physiology of taste Olfaction / taste obnormalistis

Endocrinology

General principles (classification, Acromegaly, Giantism
Machanism of action, feed back control) Biosynthesis, transport, metabolism, action And control of secretion of hormones of; Hormonal Assay
Hypothalamus
Anterior Pituitary Dwarfism
Posterior Pituitary Panhypopituitarism
Thyroid gland Sheehan’s syndrome
Parathyroid, Calcitomin Diabetes insipidus
Adrenal Medulla Syndrome, of inappropriate ADH Secretion
Adrenal Cortex Myxeodema, Creatinism, Thyrotoxicosis
GIT Pheochromocytoma
Pineal gland Cushing’s syndrome, Cohn’s
Thymus Adrenogenital Addision’s diseases, Syndrome

Basic Concepts Clinical / Applied Concepts
Kidney and Body Fluids Diabetes Milletus
Description of The body fluid compartments, Hypoglycemia
Glomerular filtration and its control, Tubular Zollinger Ellison Syndrome
processing and urine formation, Countercurrent Hypoglycemia
mechanism, Control of extracellular fluid osmolality,
Regulation of Acid-Base balance, Micturition and
kidney diseases
Integument and Temperature Regulation
Skin and its functions, Body temperature regulation.

LABWORK:

To study the effects of different regent on RBC’s.
To records the blood pressure in human blood.
To test the visual acuity.
To test the color vision.
To test sense of smell.

To test sense of Taste.
Hearing test for deafness.

Nervous System
Examination of superficial reflexes
Examination of deep reflexes
Examination of sensory, motor system
Clinical Examination of cranial nerves

Cardiovascular System
Frog’s Heart
Recording of normal cardiogram and affect of temperature
Effect of drugs on cardiac contractility
Effect of lons on cardiac contractility
Properties of cardiac muscle in frogs heart (Demonstration)
Heart Sounds – auscultation of normal sounds/murmurs

2.1.2.5- ANNEXURE FOR PHYSIOLOGY
Recommended books
1. Textbook of Medical physiology by Arthur C. Guyton.
2. Review of Medical physiology by Ganong.
3. N.M.S textbook of physiology.
4. Physiology by Sherwood.

BOOKS FOR REFERENCE:
i) Berne & Levey; Physiology, 2ND edition
ii) West-Best & Taylor’s, Physiological basis of Medical Practise, 11Th edition

EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY:
Rannade; Practical Physiology,
Ghai; a text book of practical physiology
Hutchison’s; Clinical Methods

2.1.3- BIOCHEMISTRY:
2.1.3.1- AIMS AND SCOPE OF THE COURSE IN BIOCHEMISTRY:
The major aim is to provide a sound but crisp knowledge on the biochemical basis of the life processes relevant to the human system and to dental/medical practice. The contents should be organised to build on the already existing information available to the students in the pre-university stage and reorienting. A mere rehash should be avoided.
The chemistry portion should strive towards providing information on the functional groups, hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties and weak valence forces that organize macromolecules. Details on structure need not be emphasized.
Discussion on metabolic processes should put emphasis on the overall change, interdependence and molecular turnover. While details of the steps may be given, the student should not be expected to memorise them. An introduction to biochemical genetics and molecular biology is a must but details should be avoided. The exposure to antivitamins, antimetabolitess and enzyme inhibitors at this stage, will provide a basis for the future study of medical subjects. An overview of metabolic regulation is to be taught by covering hormonal action, second messengers and regulation of enzyme activities. Medical aspects of biochemistry should avoid describing innumerable functional tests most of which are not in vogue. Cataloguing genetic disorders under each head of metabolism is unnecessary. A few examples, which correlate genotype change to functional changes, should be adequate.
At the end of the course the student would be able to acquire a useful core of information, which can be retained for a long time.

2.1.3.2- SEMESTER I:

Course work:

Introduction of Biochemistry:
Biochemistry of the Cell
(a) Introduction to cell (Biochemical point of view)
(b) Scientific methods to study the cell Biochemistry
(c) Biochemical composition of the cell
Biochemistry of the Cell and Body Fluids:
(a) Ionization of water & weak acids, Bases
(b) Concept of pH, and pH scale
(c) Dissociation constant & titration curve of weak acids, the concept of pK values
(d) Buffers, their mechanism of action
(e) Henderson-Hesselbalch Equation
(f) Blood buffers
(g) Types of particles, solution, solute types, concentration units, biochemical behavior of water, viscosity
(h) Importance of selectively permeable membranes.
(i) Chemical bonds:
Covalent bonds, dative bonds, polar bonds, dipoles, chelates compounds, ionic bonds, hydrogen
bonds, vander waal’s forces of attraction.
(j) Physio-biochemistry
Osmosis, Osmotic pressure, surface tension, viscosity & their importance related to body fluids
diffusion and filtration, phago and pinocytosis. Dialysis, Surface tension, Donnan’s equilibrium

2. Carbohydrates:
(a) Definition, biochemical function and classification
(b) Structure and functions of Monosaccharides, and their derivatives
(c) Disaccharides, their important examples
(d) Oligosaccharides, their important combination with other macromolecules
(e) Polysaccharides, their important examples and biochemical role
(f) The biochemical importance of carbohydrates

3. Proteins:
(a) Definitions, Biomedical importance and classification of proteins
Based on
Physiochemical properties
Functional
Nutritional
Structural
(b) Amino acids, their structure, properties and functions
(c) Classification and nutritional significance of amino acids and essential amino acids
(d) Dissociation, titration and importance of amino acid in pH maintenance
(e) Structure of proteins and their significance
(f) Separation of proteins e.g. salting out, Electroresis, Chromatography, Centrifugation
(g) Immunoglobulins and its biomedical significance
(h) Plasma proteins & their clinical significance

4. Nucleotide and Nucleic Acid:
(a) Chemistry and structure of nucleotides and their biochemical role
(b) Nucleotides, structure, their derivatives and their biochemical role
(c) Synthetic derivatives of purine and pyrimidines, their role in health and disease
(d) Nucleic acids, their types, structure and functions

5. Lipids:
(a) Definition, biomedical function
(b) Classification of lipids
(c) Phospholipids, Glycolipids, Sphingolipds and their Biochemical significance.
(d) Fatty acids, chemistry, classification and biochemical function
(e) Essential fatty acids
(f) Eicosanoids, their classification and functions in health and disease
(g) Steroids, Sterol e.g Cholesterol, their chemistry, functions and clinical Significance
(h) Lipid peroxidation and its Significance

6. Biological Membrane:
(a) Biochemical composition
(b) Biochemistry of cell membrane, chemical composition, importance of Lipid and proteins in
membranes, chemistry of signals and receptors
(c) Biochemistry of membrane transport mechanism, active transport, Passive transport, simple and
facilitated diffusion

7. Enzymes:
(a) Introduction, definition, mechanism of catalysis
(b) Coenzymes, co-factors
(c) Isoenzymes, their clinical importance
(d) Factors affecting enzymes activity, Michaelis-Menten Equation, Line weaver burk equation (plot)
and their application in enzyme kinetics.
(e) Enzyme inhibitors and their classification and biomedical importance
(f) Application of enzyme in clinical diagnosis and therapeutic use
(g) Characteristics energy of activation

Labwork
1) Identification of Carbohydrate.
2) Identification of Polysaccharides.
3) Identification of Reducing and non-reducing sugars.
4) Detection of unknown carbohydrate I.
5) Detection of unknown carbohydrate II.
6) Detection of unknown carbohydrate III
7) Identification of protein (by precipitation reactions)
8) Identification of protein (by colour reactions).
9) Detection of Amino acid in proteins (I).
10) Detection of Amino acid in proteins (II).
11) Detection of Amino acid in proteins (III).
12) Detection of unknown proteins (I).
13) Detection of unknown proteins (II).
14) Detection of unknown proteins (III).
15) Identification of lipid.
16) Identification of Cholesterol.

2.1.3.3- SEMESTER II:
Course work:
1. Biochemistry of Digestive Tract:
a) Introduction of digestion and absorption
b) Introduction, composition, functions, daily secretion, stimulants and depressants of:
- Saliva
- Gastric Juice & HCL
- Pancreatic Juice
- Bile Juice
- Succus Entericus
c) Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids.
d) Biochemical disorders of GIT, e.g. achlorhydria, peptic ulcers, Lactose intolerance, cholelithiasis and
related disorders.
2. Bioenergetics
a). Exergonic and endergonic reactions,
b). Coupled reactions, NAD+/NADH, FAD/FADH2, NADP/NADPH2, coenzyme A
c). Oxidative phosphorylation
d). Respiratory/ electron transport chain mechanism.
3. Carbohydrate Metabolism
a). Glycolysis
b). Gluconeogenesis
c). Glycogenolysis
e). Cori cycle.
f). T.C.A. cycle
g). HMP-Shunt
4. Amino acid metabolism
a).Transamination
b). Oxidative deamination
c). Ammonia toxicity
d). Urea cycle.
e). Glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids.
f). Some diseases of amino acid metablism (Phenyl ketonuria & Alkaptonuria)
5. Lipid metabolism
a). Beta-oxidation of lipids
b). Ketone bodies as fuels and in diabetes
c). Cholesterol metabolism
d). Role of lipoproteins
6. Endocrinology
a). Nature and classification of hormones
b). Mechanism of action
c). Individual Hormones and their abnormalities.
7. Prophyrins & Hemoglobin:
(a) Chemistry and biosynthesis of prophyrins and its disorders (porphyrias)
(b) Structure, functions and types of hemoglobin
(c) Oxygen binding capacity of hemoglobin, factors affecting and regulating the oxygen binding capacity
of hemoglobin
(d) Degradation of heme, formation of Bile pigments, its types, transport and excetion
(e) Hyperbilirubinimea, their biochemical causes and differentiation, Jaundice and its types
(f) Heamoglobinopathies (HP-S, Thalasemia etc) and their biochemical causes
8. Vitamins:
(a) Introduction, classification
(b) Chemistry, Biochemical Functions, Deficiency manifestations, daily allowances and sources of water
soluble and fat-soluble vitamins
(c) Hypervitaminosis
9. Mineral & Trace Elements:
Classification and Biochemical role of:
a. Macro minerals (Na,K,Ca, CI, PO4)
b. Micro minerals (Fe,Zn,Mg,Se,I,Cu,Cr,Cd.Mn)

Labwork:
1) Milk Analysis I (for residue).
2) Milk Analysis II (for filtrate).
3) Simple Physical examination of urine.
4) Urine Analysis: normal constituents of urine.
5) Urine analysis: Abnormal constituents of urine
6) Estimation of glucose in Urine I.
7) Estimation of glucose in Urine II.
8) Estimation of glucose in Urine III.

Demonstration:
1) Paper electrophoresis charts/clinical data evaluation
2) Glucose tolerance test profiles
3) Serum lipid profiles
4) Profiles of hypothyrodisim and hyperthyrodisim
5) Profiles of hyper and hypoparathyrodism
6) Profiles of liver function 0
7) Urea, uric acid creatinine profile in kidney disorders
8) Blood gas profile in acidosis/ alkalosi

2.1.3.4- RECOMMENDED TEXTBOOKS:
1. Harper’s Biochemistry, R.K. Murray et. al
2. Basic and Applied Dental Biochemistry, Williams and J.C. Elliot.
3. Textbook of Biochemistry Vol I & II by Mushtaq Ahmed
4. Lippincoat’s Illustrated Reviews: Biochemistry
5. Textbook of Modern Biochemistry Vol I and II by Mukhtar Ahmed
6. Textbook of Biochemistry by Chatergee.

2.1.4- SCIENCE OF DENTAL MATERIALS
The science of Dental material has undergone tremendous changes over the years. Continued research has led to new material systems and changing concepts in the dental field. Interlinked with various specialized branches of chemistry, practically all engineering applied sciences and biological characteristics, the science of dental material emerged as a basic sciences in itself with its own values and principles.
2.1.4.1- AIMS:
Aim of the course is to present basic chemical and physical properties of dental materials as they are related to its manipulation to give a sound educational background so that the practice of dentistry emerged from art to empirical status of science, as more information through further research becomes available. It is also the aim of the course of dental materials to provide with certain criteria of selection and which will enable to discriminate between facts and propaganda with regards to claims of manufacturers.
2.1.4.2- OBJECTIVES:
To understand the evolution and development of science of dental material. To explain purpose of course in dental materials to personnel’s concerned with the profession of the dentistry. Knowledge of physical and chemical properties. Knowledge of biomechanical requirements of particular restorative procedure. An intelligent compromise of the conflicting as well as co-ordinating factors into the desired Ernest. Laying down standards or specifications of various materials to guide to manufacturers as well as to help professionals. Search for newer and better materials, which may answer our requirements with greater satisfaction. To understand and evaluate the claims made by manufactures of dental materials.
2.1.4.3- SCOPE:
The dental materials is employed in mechanical procedures including restorative dentistry such as prosthodontics, endodontics, periodontal, orthodontics and restorative materials. There is scarcely a dental procedure that does not make use of dental materials in one form or another and therefore the application of dental material is not limited to anyone branch of dentistry. Branches such as minor surgery and periodontics require less use of materials but the physical and chemical characters of materials are important in these fields.

2.1.4.4- SEMESTER I
Course work:
1) Introduction to the Science of Dentistry.
Structure of teeth & their arrangement according to their functions in oral cavity, oral disease, prevention and treatment.
2) Properties used to characterize materials.
Physical, chemical, thermal & biological properties.
3) Gypsum and its products as used in Dentistry, including Investment Plasters.
Composition, manufacturing process, classification, manipulation, setting characteristics, uses advantages & disadvantages.
4) Impression materials.
Classification chemical composition uses manipulation handling, clinical techniques, advantages and disadvantages.
5) Waxes.
Classification chemical composition, properties, handling characteristics, uses, advantages & disadvantages.
6) Metal & Alloys, including Base Metal Casting Alloys, Gold & Gold alloys, Wrought Alloys.
Physical structure, properties, biological considerations, classification, uses, advantages & disadvantages, cross comparison.
7) Dental prosthesis, partial and complete.
Classification of partial denture design, introduction to complete denture, components, surveyor & surveying procedure, clasp designs, cast clasp v/s wrought wire clasp, difference between cast partial / acrylic partial & fixed partial denture.
8) Polymers, including Denture Base Polymers, Denture Lining Materials, Temporary Crown & Bridge resins.
Chemistry of polymers, polymerization reaction, composition of denture base polymers / lining materials / crown & bridge resins, methods & stages of polymerization, uses, advantages & disadvantages.

Labwork
1) Manipulation & slab exercise of soft hard plaster
2) Manipulation, Impression taking with alginate, elastomers impression composition, model base making exercise.
3) Handling of waxes, wax carving exercise.
4) Wire bending exercise, alphabet clasps designing.
5) Partial Dentures,
6) Surveyor, How to do surveying, Various types of clasp design according to gauges, wax up setup.

2.1.4.5- SEMESTER II:
Coursework
1) Laboratory Procedure of making Dental Prosthesis.
Study of model / surveying, denture base & clasp designing, separating media, curing process, faults &
precautions.
2) Ceramics.
Composition, physical & Chemical properties, uses in dentistry, instruments & equipment, baking
process, advantages, comparison with acrylic resins.
3) Artificial Teeth.
Type, advantages & disadvantages, comparison with porcelain teeth.
4) Casting Procedure. Its application in Dentistry.
Equipment & instruments, detail knowledge of the process and materials used.
5) Dental Plaque and its related diseases of hard and soft tissues of the Oral Cavity.
Brief discussion of plaque and its related diseases, prevention, role of fluoride.
6) Classification of Cavity Design.
Classification of various cavity designs, brief discussion on cavity preparation in consideration of the
material used.
7) Restorative Materials, including Direct & Indirect Materials.
Amalgam, composite resin, glass ionmers, ceramic & metal inlays & veneers, full coverage metal and ceramic crwons.
8) Acid Etching and its applications in Restorative Dentistry.
Etching of enamel, dentine, glass inomer, porcelain, metal uses in preventive dentistry, such as, fissure sealents, process and materials used advantages and disadvantages.
9) Dental Cements.
Classification, chemical composition, manipulation, handling characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, specific usage, such as, sublining, lining, luting and restorative cements.

Labwork
1) Demonstration of Casting and continue acrylic finishing & polishing.
2) Demonstration and use of ceramic. Fabrication of crowns and bridges.
3) Partial Denture Class I & II.
4) Partial Denture Class III & IV with modification of all three classes.
5) Demonstration of restoration Handling & manipulation exercise of Amalgam, Glass Ionomer & Dental Cements.
6) Demonstration of Acid Etching. Composite resin, handling & manipulation exercise.

2.1.4.6- Recommended Books
1. Restorative Dental Material by Robert G. Craig and John M. Power.
2. Phillips science of Dental Materials. By Kenneth J. Anusavice.
3. Chemistry of Dental Materials by Mc Cabe
4. Notes on Dental Materials by M. C. Comb
5. Dental Chemistry by William and Cunnigham

2.1.4.7- LIST OF DENTAL INSTRUMENTS
1. INSTRUMENTS QUANTITY SPECIFICATION
2. BOWLS 2 Rubber & Silicone
3. SPATULA 2 Plaster & Alginate
4. PLIERS 4 Lat, Round, Adams, Cutting
5. PLASTER KNIFE 1
6. WAX CARVER 1
7. WAX KNIFE 1
8. GLASS SLAB 1 4.5” X 5” X 0.4”
9. FLASKS 2
10. PRESS 1
11. TEETH STRIP 1 C/D: Shade H3, Size 3
12. PROTECTIVE EYE GLASSES 1
13. FACE MASKS 50
14. GLOVES 50 pairs
15. PENCIL 1
16. RUBBER
17. STEEL SCALE (6”) 1
18. SCOTCH TAPE 1
19. LOG BOOK 1
20. SCISSORS 1
PHOTOGRAPHS 4

2.1.5- PAKISTAN STUDIES:
a. The role of sufis and saints in the spread of Islam in the subcontinent.
b. Shah Waliullah and Tehrik – I – Mujahidin.
c. The war of Independenc 1857.
e. The Aligarh Movement.
e. The Aligarh Movement.
f. The Muslim League.
g. The Nehru report and Quaid-I-Azam 14 points.
h. The Ideology of Pakistan. The initial problems faced by newly independent Pakistan.
i. Pakistan and the Muslim World.
j. TheKashmir problem.
k. The U.N.O.

2.1.6- ISLAMIYAT
a. The fundamental pillars of Islam.
b. The Holy Qur’an: Sura-e-Furqan.
c. Hadith-e-Nabvi.
d. Uswa-e-Husna.
e. Ashra-e-Mubshra.
f. The Meccan period and life in Medina.
h. The Rashida Caliphate.
h. The Rashida Caliphate.

2nd Year Curriculum

2.2- Second Professional B.D.S:
2.2.1- PATHOLOGY:
2.2.1.1- Aim:
At the end of the course the student should be competent to apply the scientific study of diseaseprocesses, which result in morphological and functional alterations in cells, tissues andorgans to the study of pathology and the practice of dentistry.

2.2.1.2- Objectives:
Enabling the student
1. To demonstrate and apply basic facts, concepts and theories in the field of Pathology.
2. To recognize and analyze pathological changes at macroscopically and microscopical levels and explain their observations in terms of disease processes.
3. To Integrate knowledge from the basic sciences, clinical medicine and dentistry in the study of Pathology.
4. To demonstrate understanding of the capabilities and limitations of morphological Pathology in its contribution to medicine, dentistry and biological research.
5. To demonstrate ability to consult resource materials outside lectures, laboratory and tutorial classes.

2.2.1.3- SEMESTER I:
Course work:
1. CELL INJURY:
a. Terms necrosis, ischemia, hypoxia, infarction and gangrene.
b. Sequence of the ultrastructural and biochemical changes which occur in the cell in response to the following:
Ischemia
Immunological injury-eg. Asthma / SLE /Anaphylactic reaction
Physical agents: eg. Radiation
Genetic defects- eg. Thalassemia / haemophilia
Nutritional deficiency
Infectious agents
Viruses: eg. Hepatitis / Aids / HIV infections
Fungi: eg. Staphylococcus
Parasites: eg. Malaria
c. Irreversible and reversible injury.
d. Apoptosis and its significance.
e. Necrosis and its types.
f. Exogenous and endogenous pigment deposition
g. Dystrophic and metastatic calcification along with clinical significance.
h. Metabolic disorders
Lipid
Protein
Carbohydrate
2. INFLAMMATION AND MEDIATORS OF INFLAMMATION
a) Describe the role of inflammation in the defense mechanisms of the body.
b) Describe the vascular changes of acute inflammation and relate these to the morphological and tissue effects.
c) Describe the process of chemotaxis, opsonization and phagocytosis.
d) Describe the role of cellular components in inflammatory exudate.
e) Differentiate between exudate and transudate.
f) List the important chemical mediators of inflammation
g) Describe the pathway of Archidonic Acid metabolism.
h) Discuss the role of products of Archidonic acid metabolism in inflammation.
i) Describe the mechanism for development of fever, with reference to exogenous and endogenous pyrogens.
j) Describe chronic inflammation including granulomas.
k) Describe granuloma , its type and causes.
l) Describe the systemic effects of acute and chronic inflammation and their possible outcomes.
m) Describe the signification of ESR.
3. WOUND HEALING
a) Describe the differences between repair and regeneration.
b) Describe wound healing by first and second intention.
c) Discuss the factors that influence the inflammatory reparative response.
d) Compare wound contraction with cicatrization.
e) Describe the formation of granulation tissue.
f) Describe the complications of wound healing.
4. DISORDERS OF CIRCULATION
a) THROMBO-EMBOLIC DISORDERS AND THEIR MODALITIES:
1. Explain the pathogenesis of thrombosis.
2. Describe the possible consequences of thrombosis.
b) DISORDERS OF THE CIRCULATION AND SHOCK
1. Define edema, ascites, hydrothorax and anasarca.
2. Describe the pathophysiology of edema with special emphasis on CHF.
3. Describe the pathogenesis of four major types of shock (Hypovolemic, cardiogenic, vasovagal and septic) and list their causes.
4. Describe the compensatory mechanisms involved in shock.
5. NEOPLASIA
Description of Neoplasia Characteristics of bengin and malignant tumors, Spread of tumours, Pre-disposing factors, etiology carcingenesis, classification, Skin tumours Bengin Malignant.
6. GENETICS
Description of hereditary and related disorders

Labwork
1. Histopathological presentations: Necorsis, Acute Inflammation, Chronic Inclammation, Granulation tissue, Granulomatous inflammation, Fatty Change.
2. Study of Microscope
3. Sterlization methods
4. Simple Staining methods
5. Culture Medias
6. Gram staining
7. Zeihl Nelson staining
8. Histopathological presentations: Beningn Tumour (leiomyoma ), Malignant Tumour (leiomyosaecema), Sq. cell Ca, Papillioma, Basal Cell Ca,
9. Serology (widal test)

2.2.1.4- SEMESTER II:
Coursework

Blood Disorders
Introduction to Hematopoietic System Red cell disorder Anemia’s , White cell disorder, Leukemia’s, Platel disorders, Bleeding disorders, Blood transfusion Blood groups, Blood Chemistry
Immunology
Description of Antigen, Antibody, Complement, Immune responses, Adverse immune reaction, HLA Tissue transplantation.
Systemic Disorders
Description of G.I.T. Disorders (Oral lesions, Infections, Ulcerations, tumours, Congenital defects), Liver Disorders (Jaundice, Hepatitis Lab, Investigation), Bones & JointsDisorders (Osteomyelitis, Paget’s disease, Bone tumours), Circulatory System Disorders (Arterioscleroses, Hypertension, IHD, Rheumatic fever), Nervous System Disorders (Meningitis, Facial nerve palsy), Respiratory System Disorders (Pneumonia, tuberculosis, Tumours), Hormonal disease (Diabetes Mellitus, Thyroid, Pituitary).
THE ORAL CAVITY:
a. Predisposing factors (pipe smoking, ill fitting denture, alcohol abuse, irritant foods) of leukoplakia.
b. Clinical and morphological features of oral cancer.
c. Benign and malignant tumours of salivary glands.
d. Clinical and morphological features of plemorphic adenoma.

Labwork

a. Study of Blood Culture & Sensitivity
b. Study of Anaerobic bacterial culture
c. Study of Total Leukocyte Count & Differential Leukocyte Count
d. Study of Blood Grouping methods
e. Study of Bleeding Time & Clotting Time
f. Study of Blood transfusion, Blood groups
g. Study of micro-organisms: Staphylococci, Streptococci, Corynebacterium diphtheria, M. Tuberculosis, Clostridium, Plasmodium.
h. Urine examination
i. Stool examination
j. Study of Blood Chemistry

2.2.1.5- RECOMMENDED BOOKS
Basic Pathology BY Robbin & Kumar

2.2.2- Microbiology
2.2.2.1- AIM:
To introduce the students to the exciting world of microbes. To make the students aware of various branches of microbiology, importance, significance and contribution of each branch to mankind and other fields of medicine. The objectives of teaching microbiology can be achieved by various teaching techniques such as :
a) Lectures
b) Lecture Demonstrations
c) Practical exercises
d) Audio visual aids
e) Small group discussions with regular feed back from the students.

2.2.2.2- OBJECTIVES

A. Knowledge and Understanding
At the end of the Microbiology course the student is expected to :
1. Understand the basics of various branches of microbiology and able to apply theknowledge relevantly.
2. Apply the knowledge gained in related medical subjects like General Medicine and General Surgery and Dental subjects like Oral Pathology, Community Dentistry,
Periodontics, Oral Surgery, Pedodontics, Conservative Dentistry and Oral medicine in higher classes.
3. Understand and practice various methods of Sterilisation and disinfection in dental clinics.
4. Have a sound understanding of various infectious diseases and lesions in the oral cavity.

B. SKILLS
1. Student should have acquired the skill to diagnose, differentiate various oral lesions.
2. Should be able to select, collect and transport clinical specimens to the laboratory.
3. Should be able to carry out proper aseptic procedures in the dental clinic.

2.2.2.3- SEMESTER I:
Course work:

1. GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY:
a. History, Introduction, Scope, Aims and Objectives.
b. Morphology and Physiology of bacteria.
c. Detail account of Sterlisation and Disinfection.
d. Brief account of Culture media and Culture techniques.
e. Basic knowledge of selection, collection, transport, processing of clinical Specimens and identification of bacteria.
f. Bacterial Genetics and Drug Resistance in bacteria.

2. IMMUNOLOGY:
a. Infection – Definition, Classification, Source, Mode of transmission and types of Infectious disease.
b. Immunity
c. Structure and functions of Immune system
d. The Complement System
e. Antigen
f. Immunoglobulins – Antibodies – General structure and the role played in defense mechanism of the body.
g. Immune response
h. Antigen – Antibody reactions – with reference to clinical utility.
i. Immuno deficiency disorders – a brief knowledge of various types of immunodeficiency disorders – A sound knowledge of immuno deficiency disorders relevant to dentistry.
j. Hypersensitivity reactions
k. Autoimmune disorders – Basic knowledge of various types – sound knowledge of autoimmune disorders of oral cavity and related structures.
l. Immunology of Transplantation and Malignancy
m. Immunehaematology

2.2.2.4- SEMESTER II:
Coursework

1. SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY:
I. Pyogenic cocci – Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pneumococcus, Gonococcus, Meningococcus – brief account of each coccus – detailed account of mode of spread, laboratory diagnosis, Chemo therapy and prevention – Detailed account of Cariogenic Streptococci.
II. Corynebacterium diphtheriae – mode of spread, important clinical feature, Laboratory diagnosis, Chemotherapy and Active immunisation.
III. Mycobacteria – Tuberculosis and Leprosy
IV. Clostridium – Gas gangrene, food poisoning and tetanus.
V. Non-sporing Anaerobes – in brief about classification and morphology, in detail about dental pathogens – mechanism of disease production and prevention.
VI. Spirochaetes – Treponema pallidum – detailed account of Oral Lesions of syphilis, Borrelia vincentii.
VII. Actinomycetes.

2. VIROLOGY:
a. Introduction
b. General properties, cultivation, host – virus interaction with special reference to Interferon.
c. Brief account of Laboratory diagnosis, Chemotherapy and immuno prophylaxis in general.
d. A few viruses of relevance to dentistry.
i. Herpes Virus
ii. Hepatitis B Virus – brief about other types
iii. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
iv. Mumps Virus
v. Brief – Measles and Rubella Virus
e. Bacteriophage – structure and Significance

3. MYCOLOGY
a. Brief Introduction
b. Candidosis – in detail
c. Briefly on oral lesions of systemic mycoses.

4. PARASITOLOGY:
a. Brief introduction – protozoans and helminths
b. Brief knowledge about the mode of transmission and prevention of commonly seen parasitic infection in the region.

2.2.2.5- RECOMMENDED BOOKS
Microbiology Lipincott’s Illustrated Reviews
Medical Microbiology (Jawetz, Melnick & Adelberg)

2.2.3- PHARMACOLOGY

2.2.3.1- GOAL:
The broad goal of teaching under graduate students in pharmacology is to inculcate rational and scientific basis of therapeutics keeping in view of dental curriculum and Profession.

2.2.3.2- OBJECTIVES:

A). KNOWLEDGE
At the end of the course the student shall be able to:
i) Describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of essential and commonly used drugs in general and in dentistry in particular.
ii) List the indications, contraindications; interactions, and adverse reactions of commonly used drugs with reason.
iii) Tailor the use of appropriate drugs in disease with consideration to its cost, efficacy, safety for individual and mass therapy needs.
iv) Indicate special care in prescribing common and essential drugs in special medical situations such as pregnancy, lactation, old age, renal, hepatic damage and immuno compromised patients.
v) Integrate the rational drug therapy in clinical pharmacology.
vi) Indicate the principles underlying the concepts of “Essential drugs”.

B). SKILLS:
At the end of the course the student shall be able to:
1) Prescribe drugs for common dental and medical ailments.
2) To appreciate adverse reactions and drug interactions of commonly used drugs.
3) Observe experiments designed for study of effects of drugs.
4) Critically evaluate drug formulations and be able to interpret the clinical pharmacology of marketed preparations commonly used in dentistry.

2.2.3.3- SEMESTER I:

Course work:

1. General Pharmacology:

a. Definition of drug and drug nomenclature.
b. Branches / Divisions of Pharmacology
c. Active principles of drug and Pharmacology
d. Dosage forms and doses of drugs.
e. Absorption of drugs and processes involved in drug absorption
f. Factors modifying absorption of drugs.
g. Transport of drugs across cell-membrane
h. Bioavailability, its clinical significance and factors affecting bioavailabiliy
i. Drugs reservoirs, distribution and redistribution of drugs, plasma protein binding.
j. Pro-drug, Biotransformation of drugs, enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition and entero-hepatic circulation
k. Plasma half-life of drugs, steady state concentration, its clinical mportance and factors affecting it.
l. Excretion of drugs.
m. Mechanism of drug action.
n. Dose response curves, structure-activity relationship.
o. Factors modifying action and doses of drugss.
p. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and Receptors

2. Drugs Acting on Autonomic Nervous system

Cholinergic Drugs

Choline Esters
• Anticholine-esterases
• Cholinimimetic Alkaloids
• Anti Muscarinic
• Non catecholamine
Anti- Cholinergic Drugs
• Anti Muscarinic
• Non catecholamine
Sympatholytics / Antiadrenergics
• Alpha Adrenergic Blockers
• Beta Adrenergic receptor Blockers

3. Autocoids and Anti-inflammatory Agents:
Introduction to anti-inflammatory agents and autocoids.

4. Diuretics:
Introduction to diuretics and related agents

5. Cardiovascular System:
Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure & Cardiac Glycosides, Anti- Anginal agents, Anti Hypertensive, Anti Arrhythmic, Coagulation & Anti-coagulants, treatment of Anemia, treatment of Hyperlipidemia.

6. Gout and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Treatment of gout and rheumatoid arthritis

7. Analgesics
Introduction to non-narcotic analgesics

Labwork

1. Weight & Measures, Interconversion
2. To prepare & Dispense 90 ml of 0.05% KmnO4 solution.
3. To prepare & dispense 120 ml of 1:4000 KMnO4 solution
4. To prepare & dispense 100 ml of .01% KMnO4 from stock.
5. To prepare and dispense 90 ml of Carminative Mixture.
6. To prepare and dispense 3 doses of Bismuth Kaolin
7. To prepare & dispense 90 ml Castor Oil Emulsion. Each 30 ml Contains 4 ml of Oil.

2.2.3.4- SEMESTER II

Coursework

Antimicrobial Agents:
Introduction, Antiseptics & Disinfectants, Folate Antagonists, Penicillin, Cephalosporins, Macrolides, Quinolones, Tetracyclines, Chloramphenicol, Aminoglycosides, Anti-Tuberculous. Antiviral agents

Central Nervous System:
Treatment of Parkinsonism, Epilepsy, CNS Stimulants, Antipsychotics, Antidepressants, Opioid Analgesics, General Anesthetics, Local Anesthetics, Sedative Hypnotics, Anxiolytics, Treatment of migraine

Respiration:
Description of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of respiratory disorders.

Gastrointestinal System:
Description of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

Antifungal Agents:
Description of Anti-protozoal agents, Anti-Helminthic agents,

Endocrinology
Introduction, Pituitary and Hypothalamus, Thyroid & Antithyroid Drugs, Insulin & Oral, Hypoglycemics, Paratharmone & Calcitonin, Androgens, Female sex Hormones & Anti-Estrogens, Corticosteroids.

DENTAL PHARMACOLOGY
Anti – septics, astrigents, obtundents, mummifying agents, bleaching agents, styptics, disclosing agents, dentifrices, mouth washes, caries and fluorides. 2. Pharmacotherapy of common oral conditions in dentistry

Lab work
a. To prepare & dispense 90 ml Cod Liver Oil Emulsion. Each 30 ml containing 4 ml Oil.
b. To prepare & dispense 40 ml of Calamine Lotion.
c. To prepare and dispense 20 ml of Turpentine Liniment
d. To prepare & dispense 4 powders of Atropine diphenoxylate.
e. To prepare & dispense 4 powders, each containing 0.6 mg Hyoscine.
f. To prepare & dispense 15G of Sulphur Ointment.
g. Prescription Writing

2.2.3.5- RECOMMENDED BOOK:
• Bertam G Katzung, Basic and Clinical pharmacology
• Review of Pharmacology Katzung
• Lauerence D.R. Clinical Pharmacology 8th ed. Churchill Livingstone
• Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews Pharmacology
• Basis of therapeutics and pharmacology Goodman Gillmans

2.2.4- ORAL BIOLOGY
Oral Biology course includes instructions in the subject of Dental Morphology, Oral Embryology, Oral Histology and Oral Physiology.Introduction – Oral Biology – a composite of basic Dental Sciences & their clinical applications.

2.2.4.1- SKILLS
The student should acquire basic skills in :
1. Carving of crowns of permanent teeth in wax.
2. Microscopic study of Oral tissues.
3. Identification of Deciduous & Permanent teeth.
4. Age estimation by patterns of teeth eruption from plaster casts of different age groups.

2.2.4.2- OBJECTIVES
After a course on Oral Biology,
1. The student is expected to appreciate the normal development, morphology, structure & functions of oral tissues & variations in different pathological/non-pathological states.
2. The student should understand the histological basis of various dental treatment procedures and physiologic ageing process in the dental tissues.
3. The students must know the basic knowledge of various research methodologies.

2.2.4.3- SEMESTER I:
I. TOOTH MORPHOLOGY

Course work:

1. Introduction to tooth morphology:
Human dentition, types of teeth, & functions, Palmer’s & Binomial notation systems, tooth surfaces, their junctions – line angles & point angles, definition of terms used in dental morphology, geometric concepts in tooth morphology, contact areas & embrasures – Clinical significance.

2. Morphology of permanent teeth :
• Description of individual teeth, along with their endodontic anatomy & including a note on their chronology of development, differences between similar class of teeth & identification of individual teeth.
• Variations & Anomalies commonly seen in individual teeth.

3. Morphology of Deciduous teeth :
• Generalized differences between Deciduous & Permanent teeth.
• Description of individual deciduous teeth, including their chronology of development, endodontic anatomy, differences between similar class of teeth & identification of individual teeth.

4. Occlusion :
• . Definition, factors influencing occlusion – basal bone, arch, individual teeth, external & internal forces & sequence of eruption.
• . Inclination of individual teeth – compensatory curves.
• . Centric relation & Centric occlusion – protrusive, retrusive & lateral occlusion.
• . Clinical significance of normal occlusion.
• . Introduction to & Classification of Malocclusion.

II. ORAL EMBRYOLOGY

Coursework
• General human development
• The brachial apparatus
• Development of face/tongue/thyroid gland
• Development of nasomaxillary complex
• Development of palate
• Development of mandible and temporo mandibular joint
• Development of para-nasal sinuses
• Development of salivary glands
• Tooth development and its associated structures
• Development of cartilages and bones of facial skeleton
• Introduction of clinical anomalies related with all the above topics
• Introduction to Post natal facial growth.
• Development of base of skull

III. ORAL HISTOLOGY

Coursework

• Bone/cartilage (specially jaws)
• Alveolar bone
• Periodontal ligament
• Cementum
• Tooth eruption and shedding

IV. ORAL PHYSIOLOGY

Coursework

1. Saliva :
Composition of saliva – variations, formation of saliva & mechanisms of secretion, salivary reflexes, brief review of secretomotor pathway, functions, role of saliva in dental caries & applied aspects of hyper & hypo salivation.
2. Mastication :
Masticatory force & its measurement – need for mastication, peculiarities of masticatory muscles, masticatory cycle, masticatory reflexes & neural control of mastication.
3. Deglutition :
. Review of the steps in deglutition, swallowing in infants, neural control of deglutition & dysphagia

2.2.4.4- SEMESTER II

III. ORAL HISTOLOGY

Coursework

1. Oral mucous membrane
2. Dentine
3. Pulp
4. Enamel
5. Temporo-mandibular joint clinical consideration
6. Endogenous implants/changes during tooth movement/wound healing
7. Detailed microscopic study of Oral Mucosa, variation in structure in relation to functional requirements, mechanisms of keratinization, clinical parts of gingiva
8. Dentogingival & Mucocutaneous junctions & lingual papillae. Age changes & clinical considerations.
9. Salivary Glands :
a. . Detailed microscopic study of acini & ductal system.
b. . Age changes& clinical considerations.
10. TM Joint :
a. . Review of basic anatomical aspects & microscopiuc study & clinical considerations.
11. Maxillary Sinus :
a. Microscopic study, anatomical variations, functions & clinical relevance of maxillary sinus in dental practice.
12. Processing of Hard & soft tissues for microscopic study :
i. . Ground sections, decalcified sections & routine staining procedures.
13. Basic histochemical staining patterns of oral tissues.

IV. ORAL PHYSIOLOGY

Coursework

1. Calcium, Phosphorous & fluoride metabolism :
. Source, requirements, absorption, distribution, functions & excretion, clinical considerations, hypo & hypercalcemia & hyper & hypo phosphatemia & fluorosis.
2. Theories of Mineralization :
Definition, mechanisms, theories & their drawbacks.
Applied aspects of physiology of mineralization, pathological considerations – calculus
formation.
3. Physiology of Taste :
Innervation of taste buds & taste pathway, physiologic basis of taste sensation, age
changes & applied aspects – taste disorders.
4. Physiology of Speech :
Review of basic anatomy of larynx & vocal cords.
.Voice production, resonators, production of vowels & different consonants – Role of palate, teeth & tongue.
Effects of dental prosthesis & appliances on speech & basic speech disorders.

LABWORK

• Tooth carving with proper dimensions on a wax.
• Histological slides.

2.2.4.5- RECOMMENDED TEXT BOOKS

• Oral Histology (Development, Structure and Function), A.R.Tencate
• Orban’s Oral Histology & Embryology – S.N.Bhaskar
• Oral Development & Histology – James & Avery
• Wheeler’s Dental Anatomy, Physiology & Occlusion – Major.M.Ash
• Dental Anatomy – its relevance to dentistry – Woelfel & Scheid
• Applied Physiology of the mouth – Lavelle
• Physiology & Biochemistry of the mouth – Jenkins
• 2.2.5- Community Dentistry

2.2.5.1- Goal:
To prevent and control oral diseases and promote oral health through organized community efforts

2.2.5.2- Objectives:

A). Knowledge:
At the conclusion of the course the student shall have a knowledge of the basis of public health, preventive dentistry, public health problems in India, Nutrition, Environment and their role in health, basics of dental statistics, epidemiological methods, National oral health policy with emphasis on oral health policy.

B). Skill and Attitude:
At the conclusion of the course the students shall have require at the skill of identifying health problems affecting the society, conducting health surveys, conducting health education classes and deciding health strategies. Students should develop a positive attitude towards the problems of the society and must take responsibilities in providing health.

C). Communication abilities:
At the conclusions of the course the student should be able to communicate the needs of the community efficiently, inform the society of all the recent methodologies in preventing oral disease

2.2.5.3- SEMESTER I

Coursework

1. Concepts of Health and Disease
Concepts of Health Disease and Illness, Determinants of Health, Primary Health Care Activity and Underlying Principals, Global Goals for Oral Health for the Year 2000, Criteria for A Public Health Problem and Public Health Importance of Oral Disease, Impact of Oral Disease with reference to Impairment Functional Limitation, Discomfort Disability and Handicap.

2. Principles of epidemiology
Epidemeology, Uses of Epidemeology, Types of Epidemeological Studies, Indices – Criteria for an Ideal Index. Protocol to conduct an Epidemiological Survey.

3. Dental Caries
Etiology and Nature of Dental Caries Methods of Diagnosis Caries, used in Epidemiology DMFT & DMFS limitation of DMFS, WHO Criteria for diagnosing Dental Caries and Criteria for Treatment need.

4. Periodontal Disease
Etiology and Natural History of Periodontal Disease continuous disease Model and Burs Model of Progression of Periodontal disease what Epidemeology has revealed about periodontal disease name of Indices used to Measure Periodontal Disease and Periodontal Treatment need short coming of Russel Perio Index, Ramfjord Perio disease indices, codes, dean’s index for fluorosis WHO indices for malocclusion for TMJ disorders lesions of Oral Mucosa and bone.

5. Dental Disease and Fluoride
Sampling types of sampling fluoride. Mode of action of fluoride sources and metabolism or fluoride historical back ground of water fluoridation, Fluoridation studies, advantages and disadvantages of water fluoridation, alternative methods to water fluoridation.

2.2.5.4- SEMESTER II

Coursework

1. Surveys and Screening
Screening, aim and principles of screening difference between screening & epidemiological surveys validity, sensitivity +ve and –ve predictive value, Clinical trials various steps in conducting a clinical trial.

2. Prevention of Dental Disease
Trends in dental caries in developed and under developing countries, Studies showing correlation between sugar and dental caries, High risk markers of caries, Fissure sealant, rationale for used cost effectiveness, cost benefit, Strategy is to reduce sugar consumption in a community.

3. Health Promotion
Description of Health promotion & various types of Health Promotion Activities.

4. Biostatistics
Statistics types of means median mode weighted mean variance, standard normal deviates, sampling error probability.

5. Dental Auxiliaries
Dental and non-dental auxiliaries, classification problems with dental care in developing countries. Uses of Health auxiliaries to provide a comprehensive O~ essential dental care to rural community.

6. Health Education
Description of Health education and principles followed to plan a dental health education program.

Practical & field assignments:

A. Clinical Oral Examination
i Exercise on Models and Extracted teeth
ii Exercise on patients in out patients department
iii Examination of institutionalized population like school children

B. Questionnaire / interview study
i Designing a questionnaire
ii. Pilot testing the questionnaire
iii Data coding, processing and analysis

C. Planning and conducting a dental health education (D.H.E.) session:
i. Designing D.H.E. material
ii Planning, conducting and evaluating (D.H.E) sessions

D. Chairside preventive dental procedures
i High fluoride gel application
ii Fissure sealing
iv Plaque disclosing
v Instructions about Oral Hygiene measures
• Tooth Brushing demonstration
• Inter-dental cleaning
• Chemical control of dental plaque

2.2.5.5- RECOMMENDED BOOKS:

Community Dentistry By Brian Burt

2.2.6- PRE CLINICAL DENTISTRY

The preclinical dentistry include the following: -
1. Junior Operative Techniques
2. Junior Prosthetic Techniques
3. Orthodontics Laboratory Procedures

1. Junior Operative Techniques
i. Introduction to dental operatory
ii. Introduction to instrument used in cavity preparation
iii. Classification of dental caries
iv. Principles of Cavity preparation
v. Cavity preparation on plaster models/phantom head
vi. Filling Materials

LABORATORY EXERCISES
1. Identification and study of handcutting instruments chisles, gingival margin trimmers, excavators and hatchet.
2. Identification and use of rotary cutting instruments in contra angle hand pieces burs (Micromotor)
3. Exercises on phantom head models which includes cavity preparation base and varnish application matrix and wedge placement followed by amalgam restoration
a. Class I (5)
b. Class I with extension (2)
c. Class II (10)
d. Class II Mods (2)
e. Class V and III for glass ionmers (4)
f. Class V for amalgam (2)
4. Polishing of above restorations.
5. Demonstration of Class III and Class V cavity preparation. For composites on extracted tooth completing the restoration.
6. Polishing and finishing of the restoration of composites.
7. Identification and manipulation of varnish bases like Zinc Phosphate, Poly carboxylate, Glass Ionomers, Zinc Oxide, Eugenol cements.
8. Identification and manipulation of various matrices tooth separators and materials like composites and modified glass ionomer cements.

2. Junior Prosthetics Techniques:

I. Introduction of impression and denture materials
II. Laboratory procedures
a) Complete Dentures
b) Arylic removeable partial denture
c) Cast partial denture
d) Anterior crowns
e) Posterior crowns
f) Bridges
g) Relining / Rebasing procedures
h) Repairs
i) Soldering and welding techniques.

3. Orthodontics Laboratory Procedures
i. Properties of wires used in Orthodontics
ii. Principles of wire bending including wire bending on wooden blocks
[/three_fourth_last]


4th Year Curriculum
2.4- FINAL YEAR B.D.S
2.4.1- ORTHODONTICS2.4.1.1- COURSE OBJECTIVEUndergraduate programme in Orthodontics is designed to enable the qualifying dental surgeon to diagnose, analyse and treat common orthodontic problems by preventive, interceptive and corrective orthodontic procedures. The following basic instructional procedures will be adapted to achieve the above objectives.2.4.1.2- SEMESTER I:Coursework

1. Introduction
a. Definitions and Terminologies
b. Types
i. Preventive
ii. Interceptive
iii. Corrective
c. Aims and needs for Orthodontic Treatment

2. Growth and Development
a. Basic concepts and definitions
b. Variables affecting growth
c. Prenatal and postnatal craniofacial growth
b. Methods of studying growth
c. Theories of growth
d. Clinical application of growth and development in orthodontics
e. TMJ Development

3. Occlusion
a. Normal Occlusion
b. Andrews Six Keys of Occlusion

4. Diagnostic Aids in Orthodontics
a. History
b. Clinical Evaluation
i. Extraoral examination
ii. Intraoral examination’
c. Radiographs
i. Periapical Xrays
ii. Orthopantomogram
iii. Occlusal Xrays
iv. Cephalometric Xray
(1) Identifying relevant anatomical structures and landmarks
(2) Tracing
(3) Analyses
d. Tooth mass and size analyses
i. Cast analysis
ii. Bolton Analysis
iii. Mixed Dentition analysis
f. Formulation of problem list

5. Dental Radiology
a. Roentgen Anatomy of teeth, jaws and T.M.Joints
b. Variations within normal limits, and abnormalities
c. Different types of X-Rays machines
d. Varieties of X-Ray Films: Extra Oral, Intra oral, Bite wing and Occlusal films
e. Film taking and exposure procedures
f. Film development techniques
g. Indications and uses of dental radiology
h. Interpretation of films
i. Radiation Hazards

6. Development of dentition and occlusion
a. Prenatal development of dentition
c. Features of Primary dentition
d. Mixed dentition period
e. Permanent dentition period
a. Dimensional changes in dental arch
b. Variations in development including size, form, number and position of teeth
c. Factors affecting development.

7. Malocclusion
a. Definitions
b. Classification

8. Etiology of Malocclusion
a. Local factors
c. Heredity
d. Environmental Factors

9. Preventive and Interceptive Orthodontics
a. Diagnosis and Management of Habits
b. Space supervision
c. Space maintainers
d. Space regainers
e. Serial Extractions

10. Bone metabolism
a. Normal Structure of Periodontal Ligament and Bone
b. The role of bone in eruption and stabilization
c. Effects of Orthodontic force
e. Factors affecting tooth movement

11. Biomechanics
a. Concepts, Types and Control of Anchorage
b. Types of Wires and Alloys used in orthodontics
c. Ideal properties of Orthodontic wires and comparison of different alloys

2.4.1.3- SEMESTER II:

Coursework

12. Retention and relapse
a. Concepts of retention and relapse
b. Occlusal Stability and factors related to retention
c. Strategies of management.

13. Removable appliances
a. Functional appliances
i) Types
ii) Indications
iii) Construction
b. Introduction to various extraoral appliances for tooth movement
c. Expansion appliances

14. Fixed appliances
a. Introduction and background of different systems
b. Indications and drawbacks
c. Components and its accessories
d. Edgewise and Straight Wire systems
e. Bonding and Banding materials

15. Treatment Planning
a. Non-skeletal problems including Class I malocclusion, crowding, spacing, crossbite, open bite, deepbite
b. Skeletal problems
c. Class II
i) Division 1
ii) Division 2
d. Class III
e. Extractions in Orthodontics
f. Adjunctive treatment goals and principles

16. Surgical Orthodontics
a. Indications

17. Cleft Lip and Palate
a. Etiology & Clinical Features

Practical and Clinical Orthodontics
1. Wire bending exercises including
a. Adams clasp
b. Labial Bow
c. Canine retractor
d. Cantilever and Z spring
e. Arch wire fabrication
2. Making of removable appliances
3. A comprehensive orthodontic case presentation of a non-skeletal malocclusion.
4. History
5. Examination
6. Cast analysis
7. Ceph Analysis
a) Diagnosis
b) Suggested Treatment Plan
c) Mixed dentition analysis
8. Fixed Appliance

2.4.1.4- Recommended Books

• Contemporary Orthodontics, Profit
• Introduction to Orthodontics, Lura Mitchell’s
• Hand Book of Orthodontics, Robert-E-Moyers

2.4.2- ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY
“To produce a graduate who is competent in performing extraction of teeth under both local and general anaesthesia, prevent and manage related complications, acquire a reasonable knowledge and understanding of the various diseases, injuries, infections occurring in the Oral & Maxillofacial region and offer solutions to such of those common conditions and has an exposure in to the in-patient management of maxillofacial problems.”

2.4.2.2- OBJECTIVES:
A) Knowledge & Understanding:
At the end of the course and the clinical training the graduate is expected to -
1. Able to apply the knowledge gained in the related medical subjects like pathology, microbiology and general medicine in the management of patients with oral surgical problem.
2. Able to diagnose, manage and treat (understand the principles of treatment of) patients with oral surgical problems.
3. Knowledge of range of surgical treatments.
4. Ability to decide the requirement of a patient to have oral surgical specialist opinion or treatment.
5. Understand the principles of in-patient management.
6. Understanding of the management of major oral surgical procedures and principles involved in patient management.
7. Should know ethical issues and communication ability.

B). Skills:

1. A graduate should have acquired the skill to examine any patient with an oral surgical problem in an orderly manner. Be able to understand requisition of various clinical and laboratory investigations and is capable of formulating differential diagnosis.
2. Should be competent in the extraction of teeth under both local and general anaesthesia.
3. Should be able to carry out certain minor oral surgical procedures under L.A. like frenectomy, alveolar procedures & biopsy etc.
4. Ability to assess, prevent and manage various complications during and after surgery.
5. Able to provide primary care and manage medical emergencies in the dental office.
6. Understanding of the management of major oral surgical problems and principles involved in inpatient management.

2.4.2.3- SEMESTER I:

Coursework

1. Introduction, definition, scope, aims and objectives.
2. Diagnosis in oral surgery:
(A) history taking (B) Clinical examination © Investigations.
3. Principles of infection control and cross-infection control with particular reference to HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis.
4. Principles of Oral Surgery -
a) Asepsis: Definition, measures to prevent introduction of infection during surgery.
1. Preparation of the patient
2. Measures to be taken by operator
3. Sterilisation of instruments – various methods of sterilisation etc.
4. Surgery set up.
b)Painless Surgery:
1. Pre- anaesthetic considerations Pre-medication: purpose, drugs used
2. Anaesthetic considerations – a) Local b) Local with IV sedations
3. Use of general anaesthetic
c) Access:
Intra-oral: Mucoperiosteal flaps, principles, commonly used intra oral incisions.

Bone Removal: Methods of bone removal.
Use of Burs: Advantages & precautions
Bone cutting instruments: Principles of using chisel & osteotome.

Extra-oral: Skin incisions – principles, various extra-oral incision to expose facial skeleton.
a) Submandibular
b) Pre auricular
c) Incision to expose maxilla & orbit
d) Bicoronal incision

Control of haemorrhage during surgery
Normal Haemostasis
Local measures available to control bleeding
Hypotensive anaesthesia etc.
Drainage & Debridement
Purpose of drainage in surgical wounds
Types of drains used
Debridement: purpose, soft tissue & bone debridement.

Closure of wounds
Suturing: Principles, suture material, classification, body response to various materials etc.
Post operative care
Post operative instructions
Physiology of cold and heat
Control of pain – analgesics
Control of infection – antibiotics
Control of swelling – anti-inflammatory drugs
Long term post operative follow up – significance.

5. Exodontia: General considerations
Ideal Extraction.
Extractions in medically compromised patients.
Methods of extraction -
(a) Forceps or intra-alveolar or closed method.

Principles, types of movement, force etc.
(b) Trans-alveolar, surgical or open method
Indications, surgical procedure. Dental elevators: uses, classification, principles in the use of elevators, commonly used elevators.
Complications of Exodontia -
Complications during exodontia
Common to both maxilla and mandible.
Post-operative complications -
Prevention and management of complications.
Impacted teeth:
Incidence, definition, aetiology.
(a) Impacted mandibular third molar.
Classification, reasons for removal,
Assessment – both clinical & radiological

6. Surgical procedures for removal.
Complications during and after removal,
Prevention and management.
Maxillary third molar,
Indications for removal, classification,
Surgical procedure for removal.
Impacted maxillary canine
Reasons for canine impaction,
Localization, indications for removal,
Methods of management, labial and palatal approach,
Surgical exposure, transplantation, removal etc.

7. Pre-prosthetic Surgery:
Definition, classification of procedures
(a) Corrective procedures: Alveoloplasty, Reduction of maxillary tuberosities, Frenoctemies and removal of tori.

(b) Ridge extension or Sulcus extension procedures
Indications and various surgical procedures

(c) Ridge augmentation and reconstruction.
Indications, use of bone grafts, Hydroxyapatite
Implants – concept of osseo integration
Knowledge of various types of implants and surgical procedure to place implants.

8. Diseases of the maxillary sinus
a. Surgical anatomy of the sinus.
b. Sinusitis both acute and chronic
c. Surgical approach of sinus – Caldwell-Luc procedure
d. Removal of root from the sinus.
e. Oro-antral fistula – aetiology, clinical features and various surgical
f. methods for closure.

9. Disorders of T.M. Joint
a. Applied surgical anatomy of the joint.
b. Dislocation – Types, aetiology, clinical features and management.
c. Ankylosis – Definition, aetiology, clinical features and management
d. Myo-facial pain dysfunction syndrome, aetiology, clinical features, management -
e. Non surgical and surgical.
f. Internal derangement of the joint.
g. Arthritis of T.M. Joint.

10. Infections of the Oral cavity
a. Introduction, factors responsible for infection, course of odontogenic
b. infections, spread of odontogenic infections through various facial spaces.
c. Dento-alveolar abscess – aetiology, clinical features and management.
d. Osteomyelitis of the jaws – definition, aetiology, pre-disposing factors,
e. classification, clinical features and management.
f. Ludwigs angina – definition, aetiology, clinical features, management and
g. complications.

11. Benign cystic lesions of the jaws -
a. Definition, classification, pathogenesis.
b. Diagnosis – Clinical features, radiological, aspiration biopsy, use of contrast
c. media and histopathology.
d. Management – Types of surgical procedures, Rationale of the techniques,
e. indications, procedures, complications etc.

2.4.2.4- SEMESTER II:

Coursework

12. Tumours of the Oral cavity -
a. General considerations
b. Non odontogenetic benign tumours occuring in oral cavity – fibroma, papilloma,
c. lipoma, ossifying fibroma, mynoma etc.
d. Ameloblastoma – Clinical features, radiological appearance and methods of
e. management.
f. Carcinoma of the oral cavity -
g. Biopsy – types
h. TNM classification.
i. Outline of management of squamous
j. Cell carcinoma: surgery, radiation and chemotherapy
k. Role of dental surgeons in the prevention and early detection of oral cancer.

13. Fractures of the jaws -
a. General considerations, types of fractures, aetiology, clinical features and
b. general principles of management.
c. mandibular fractures – Applied anatomy, classification.
d. Diagnosis – Clinical and radiological
e. Management – Reduction closed and open
f. Fixation and immobilisation methods
g. Outline of rigid and semi-rigid internal fixation.
h. Fractures of the condyle – aetiology, classification, clinical features, principles
i. of management.
j. Fractures of the middle third of the face.
k. Definition of the mid face, applied surgical anatomy, classification, clinical
l. features and outline of management.
m. Alveolar fractures – methods of management
n. Fractures of the Zygomatic complex
o. Classification, clinical features, indications for treatment, various methods of
p. reduction and fixation.
q. Complications of fractures – delayed union, non-union and malunion.

14. Salivary gland diseases -
a. Diagnosis of salivary gland diseases’
b. Sialography, contrast media, procedure.
c. Infections of the salivary glands
d. Sialolithiasis – Sub mandibular duct and gland and parotid duct.
e. Clinical features, management.
f. Salivary fistulae
g. Common tumours of salivary glands like Pleomorphic adenoma including
h. minor salivary glands.

15. Jaw deformities -
a. Basic forms – Prognathism, Retrognathism and open bite.
b. Reasons for correction.
c. Outline of surgical methods carried out on mandible and maxilla.

16. Neurological disorders -
a. Trigeminal neuralgia – definition, aetiology, clinical features and methods of
b. management including surgical.
c. Facial paralysis – Aetiology, clinical features.
d. Nerve injuries – Classification, neurorhaphy etc.

17. Cleft Lip and Palate -
a. Aetiology of the clefts, incidence, classification, role of dental surgeon in the
b. management of cleft patients.
c. Outline of the closure procedures

18. Medical Emergencies in dental practice -
Primary care of medical emergencies in dental practice particularly -
(a) Cardio vascular
b) Respiratory © Endocrine
(b) Anaphylactic reaction
(e) Epilepsy
(f) Epilepsy

19. Emergency drugs & Intra muscular I.V. Injections –
Applied anatomy, Ideal location for giving these injections, techniques etc.

LOCAL ANAESTHESIA:
a. Introduction, concept of L.A., classification of local anaesthetic agents, ideal
b. requirements, mode of action, types of local anaesthesia, complications.
c. Use of Vaso constrictors in local anaesthetic solution -
d. Advantages, contra-indications, various vaso constrictors used.
e. Anaesthesia of the mandible -
f. Pterygomandibular space – boundaries, contents etc.
g. Interior Dental Nerve Block – various techniques
h. Complications
i. Mental foramen nerve block
j. Anaesthesia of Maxilla -
k. Intra – orbital nerve block.
l. Posterior superior alveolar nerve block
m. Maxillary nerve block – techniques.

GENERAL ANAESTHESIA -
a. Concept of general anaesthesia.
b. Indications of general anaesthesia in dentistry.
c. Pre-anaesthetic evaluation of the patient.
d. Pre-anaesthetic medication – advantages, drugs used.
e. Commonly used anaesthetic agents.
f. Complication during and after G.A.
g. I.V. sedation with Diazepam and Medozolam.
h. Indications, mode of action, technique etc.
i. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
j. Use of oxygen and emergency drugs.
k. Tracheostomy.

2.4.2.3- Recommended Books:
a. Minor Oral Surgery by Geoffrey L. Howe.
b. An outline of Oral Surgery Part-I and II by Killey, Seward and Kay.
c. Killey’s Fractures of Middle third of the facial skeleton
d. Killey’s Fracture of the Mandible
e. Medical problems in Dentistry by Scully & Cawson
f. Contemprary Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery by Patterson, Ellis & Tucker.
g. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery by LASKIN
h. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery by Kruger.
i. Local Anaesthesia in Dentistry G.L. Howe, Whitehead
j. General Anaesthesia & Sedation in Dentistry by Hill, Morris
k. Oral Medicine by W.R. Tyldesley
l. Burket’s oral Medicine by Malcolm A. Lynch.
m. Oral Medicine and Pathology by Cawson and Odel
n. Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery by John Peddler

2.4.3- PROSTHODONTICS-

2.4.3.1- SEMESTER I:

Coursework

I. Complete dentures.
a) Definitions.
b) Applied Anatomy and Physiology
c) Peripheral tissue attachment of denture bearing area.
d) Tongue form
e) Saliva
f) Systemic disorders and applied pathology.
g) Evaluation of patients.
h) Identification of patients
i) General conditions.
j) Muscle tone and muscular development.
k) Osmotic balances
l) Oral lesions with skin manifestations
m) Psychiatric evaluation of patients
n) Oral condition of denture bearing area
o) Ridge form and relations.
p) Oral mucosa: resistant and non resistant tissues
q) Alveolar bone resorption.
r) Face forms
s) Fundamentals of Denture retention and contributing factors
t) Mouth preparation including preprosthotics Surgery

2. Impression Procedures
a) Objectives of impression.
a) Theories and techniques
b) Impression techniques: minimum pressure, definite pressure, selective pressure impression.
c) Pascal’s law and its corollaries, atmospheric pressure, intermolecular attraction, interfacial, surface tension
d) Impression Techniques: primary, wash and secondary impressions, impression trays, impression materials.
e) Factors responsible for physical retention, physiological, mechanical, surgical and psychological factors.
f) Stability
g) Maxillo-mandibular relations.
h) Occlusal and Rest vertical relations.
i) Horizontal relations.
j) Centric and Eccentrio relations.
k) Articulators.
l) Theories of articulation.
m) Protrusive records condylar path.
n) Lateral records.
o) Hanau’s formula.
p) Facebow, arbitrary and kinematics.
q) Hinge axis.
r) Semi adjustable and acron type articulators.
s) Selection of teeth, arrangement of teeth Factors responsible for size, shape, colour, shade, position and relationship of teeth.
s) Selection of teeth, arrangement of teeth Factors responsible for size, shape, colour, shade, position and relationship of teeth.
• Curve of Spee.
• Curve of Wilson.
• Monson curve.
t) Occulusion and articulation,
u) Phonetics
v) Trial
w) Insertion
x) Post-insertion follow up.

Crown & Bridge: (Fixed prosthodontics)
A) Principles of Fixed prosthodontics
a) Definitions:
b) Applied Anatomy and Physiology
c) Oral manifestations of local and systemic disorders
d) History: General and oral examination
e) Evaluation
f) Diagnosis and treatment planning, prognosis
g) Bio-mechanics of oral cavity and contributory factors

B) Crown
a) Material considerations
b) Types of crowns
c) Indications and contra indications (Advantages and disadvantages)
d) Principles of tooth preparations and laboratory procedures
e) Impression techniques
f) Temporary and provisional restorations
g) Cementation of temporary crowns
h) Try in Occlusal adjustments
i) Final cementation including material condition
j) Post insertion follow up
k) Post insertion complications and their management.

2.4.3.2- SEMESTER I:

Coursework

3. Immediate Dentures and Replacement Dentures
a) Classification and types (partial, complete).
b) Indications and contra indications
c) Objectives
d) Clinical and laboratory procedures
e) Multi disciplinary approach including care during surgery
f) Insertion, follow up and maintenance.

4. Implantology
a) Types of implants
b) Endosseous
c) Sub periosteal
d) Endodontic implants.
e) Osseo integration and Bio compatibility.
f) Limitation of implants.
g) Prosthodontic Options.
h) Clinical and laboratory procedures

5. Maxillo Facial Prosthetics.
a) Classification of congenital and acquired defects.
b) Principles governing treatment and management of patients presenting with various defects
c) Obturators
d) Cleft palate prosthesis
e) Speech aid prostheses
f) Facial prostheses
g) TMD splints
h) Bite Raising appliances
i) Occlusal splints
j) Arthralgia and Myalgia splints
k) Splints and Stents.

6. Occlusion including TMD/MPD
a) Theories and Principles of Occlusion.
b) Occlusal Trauma
c) Concept, Aetiology, Treatment planning and options

7. Gerodontology
a) Principles and procedures relating to the management of medically compromised patients
b) Effects of medication
c) Medical conditions having oral manifestation
d) Xerostormia
e) Root caries
f) Geriatric Nutrition
g) Principles of prosthodontic procedures in geriatric patients

Crown & Bridge: (Fixed prosthodontics)
1.). Over Dentures
a) Definitions
b) Applied Anatomy and Physiology
c) Oral manifestations of local and systemic disorders
d) History General and oral examination
e) Evaluation
f) Diagnosis and treatment planning, prognosis
g) Bio-mechanics of oral cavity and contributory factors
h) Classifications and types
i. Partial and complete
ii. Removable and Fixed
iii. Transitional or Diagnostics and permanent definitive.
iv. Tooth supported, root supported, implant supported
i) Indications contra indications, advantages and disadvantages
j) Steps of procedures and follow up.

2.). Precision Retained Dentures
Intra Coronal, Extra Coronal and Intra radicular attachments.

3). Relining, Rebasing and Repairs
General indications and principles and Procedures.

2.4.3.3. Recommended Books
A) Removable Partial Dentures.
a. MacCraken’s Removable partial dentures
b. Boucher’s treatment of partially edentulous patients by Gavin P Renner.
c. Miller’s Removable partial dentures,
d. Designing Removable partial dentures by John Walter.
e. Atlas of Removable partial dentures by Davenport.

B) Fixed Prosthodontics
a. Planning and making crowns and bridges by B. G. Smith.
b. Contemporary fixed prosthodontics by Rossential and Fujimoto.
c. Fundamentals of crown and bridge by Shillenberg.
d. Tillman’s Principles of crown and bridge.
e. Atlas of Tooth preparation for crown and bridge by Shillenberg.

C) Complete Denture Prosthodontics
a. Boucher,s Prosthodontic treatment for edentulous Patients by Dicky and Zarb, .
b. Atlas of complete dentures by John Hobkirr
c. Syllabus of complete dentures by Heartwell and Rahn.
d. Immediate and Replacement dentures by Anderson and Storer.
e. Fenn’s Clinical dental prosthetics by MacCraken.
f. Complete Dentures Prosthodontics by Basker and Devenpot.

D) Miscellaneous
a. Atlas of implantology by Norman Kranin.
b. Dental laboratory techniques by Morrow, Rudd and Eissman.
c. Occlusion by Ramfjord and Ash.
d. Management of Temporomandibular Disorders by Okeson.

2.4.4- OPERATIVE DENTISTRY

2.4.4.1- SEMESTER I:

Coursework.

1. Radiology & Radiography
a. Periapical
b. Bitewing
c. Occlusal
d. OPG

2. Restorative materials
a. Amalgam
b. Applied Chemistry
c. Mercury hazards & hygiene
d. Composite resins
e. Applied Chemistry,
f. Acid etching,
g. Enamel & Dentine bonding,
h. Restoration of Class III & IV
i. Posterior Composite
j. Composite Veneers
k. Cements
l. Ca(OH)2
m. Glass Ionomers
n. Zinc Phosphates
o. Zinc Oxide Eugenol and othersq

3. Discoloration of teeth
4.Inlays and Onlays

Paedodontics
1. Child management in dental practice
2. Prevention of Dental Disease
a) Prenatal Counseling
b) Oral prophylaxis
c) Fluoride administration
d) Dietary management
e) Diet counseling
f) Home care
3. The Acid etch Technique in caries prevention
4. Pit & Fissure Sealants & Preventive resin restorations
5. Radiology
6. Problem of Pain & Sedation

Endodontics
- History
- Clinical examination
- Therapeutics

2. Clinical Classification of pulpal & periapical disease
- Reversible pulpitis.
- Irreversible pulpitis.
- Acute apical periodontitis.
- Acute apical abscess
- Chronic apical periodontitis

3. Local Anesthesia
4. Instruments
5. Internal Morphology & Access opening
6. Pulpectomy – diagnostic & working length, cleaning filing, shaping
7. Bio-mechanical canal preparation etc.
8. Irrigants & intra canal medicaments

Crowns
1. Terminology, Indications & Contra indications
2. Diagnosis & Treatment Planning
3. Basic Principles of preparation
4. Procelain Jacket Crowns
Indications & Contraindications, Clinical assessment, and steps of preparation.
5. Procelain Fused to metal crowns
Indications, Contraindications Clinical assessment Steps of preparation
6. Full Crowns
Indications, Contraindications, Clinical assessment, Steps of preparation
7. Fluid control & soft tissue management
8. Electrosurgery Indications, Contra indication & Technique

2.4.4.2- SEMESTER I I:

Coursework

5.Restoration of Pulpless teeth ( Post and Core)
6. Pin Retained restorations
7. Bleaching
a. Internal
b. External

5. Veneers
a. Porcelain.
b. Composite
c. Metal

6. Restorative / Gingival Interface
7. Management of medically compromised patients with special reference to HIV and Hepatitis
8. Implant supported restorations
9. Occlusion

Paedodontics
a. Periodontal disease in children
b. Injury to the primary & permanent teeth
c. Pulp therapy for the primary & young permanent teeth
Apexification
Apexogenesis
d. Restorative dentistry for the primary dentition
e. Anesthesia
f. Oral habits
g. Space maintenance in the primary dentition
h. Treatment planning & interceptive orthodontics
i. Rampant caries
j. Fluorides
k. Treatment of handicapped children

Endodontics
1. Root canal sealers & obturation.
2. Failures in endodontics
3. Surgical Endodontics & Re-treatment
4. Endo – perio lesions
5. Internal, external resoption
6. Radiographic Analysis.
7. Dental emergency
8. Sterilization and asepsis
9. Traumatic injuries
a. Crown fracture
b. Root fractureq
c. Displacement
d. Avulsion

Crowns
1. Post & Core crowns
2. Impressions & Impression materials
3. Clinical Procedures
4. Laboratory Technique for
5. Porcelain veneers
6. Inlays Onlays.
7. CAD-CAM
8. Occlusion

Geriodontology
1. Management strategies for the dental care of the elderly.
2. Dental and oral diseases and disorder in the elderly.
3. Range of psychological and social factors involved with geriatric patients.
4. Distinguish between normal and abnormal consequences of aging.
5. Excessive tooth wear.
6. Root dental caries.
7. Recession of the gingival tissues and the special difficulties of providing removable prostheses.

2.4.4.3Recommended Books:
1. Art and Science of Operative Dentistry
2. Fundamentals of Operative Dentistry – Submit & Schwartz
3. A Manual of Paediatric Dentisty- Endlow and Rock
4. Inlays, Crowns and Bridges- Kantorwitz
5. Harty’s Endodontics in Clinical Practice
6. Principles and Practice of Endodontics- Torabinejad

2.4.5- BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES
2.4.5.1- GOAL:
The aim of teaching behavioural sciences to undergraduate student is to impart such knowledge & skills that may enable him to apply principles of behaviour –
a) For all round development of his personality
b) In various therapeutic situations in dentistry.
The student should be able to develop skills of assessing psychological factors in each patient, explaining stress, learning simple counselling techniques, and improving patients compliance behaviour.

2.4.5.2- OBJECTIVES:
A) KNOWLEDGE & UNDERSTANDING:
At the end of the course, the student shall be able to:
1) Comprehend different aspects of normal behaviour like learning, memory, motivation, personality & intelligence.
2) Recognise difference between normal and abnormal behaviour.
3) Classify psychiatric disorders in dentistry.
4) Recognise clinical manifestations of dental phobia, dental anxiety, facial pain, orofacial manifestations of psychiatric disorders, and behavioural problems in children. Addictive disorders, psychological disorders in various dental departments.
5) Should have understanding of stress in dentistry and knowledge of simple counselling techniques.
6) Have some background knowledge of interpersonal, managerial and problem solving skills which are an integral part of modern dental practice.
7) Have knowledge of social context of dental care.

The student shall be able to:
1) Interview the patient and understand different methods of communication skills in dentist – patient relationship.
2) Improve patient’s compliance behaviour.
4) Diagnose and manage minor psychological problems while treating dental patients.

2.4.5.2- INTEGRATION:
The training in Behavioural sciences shall prepare the students to deliver preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative services to the care of the patients both in family and community and refer advanced cases to specialised psychiatric hospitals. Training should be integrated with all the departments of Dentistry, Medicine, Pharmacology, Physiology and Biochemistry.

2.4.5.3- PSYCHOLOGY:
1. Definition & Need of Behavioural Science. Determinants of Behaviour.
2. Sensory process & perception perceptual process- clinical applications.
3. Attention – Definition – factors that determine attention. Clinical application.
4. Memory – Memory process – Types of memory , Forgetting: Methods to improve memory, Clinical assessment of memory & clinical applications.
5. Definition – Laws of learning Type of learning. Classical conditioning, operant conditioning, cognitive learning, Insight learning, social learning, observational learning, principles of learning-Clinical application.
6. Intelligence- Definition: Nature of intelligence stability of intelligence Determinants of intelligence, clinical application
7.Thinking – Definition: Types of thinking, delusions, problem solving
8. Motivation – Definition: Motive, drive, needs classification of motives
9. Emotions – Definition differentiation from feelings – Role of hypothalamus, Cerebral cortex, adrenal glands ANS. Theories of emotion, Types of emotions. Personality. Assessment of personality: Questionnaires, personality inventory, rating scales, Interview projective techniques – Rorshach ink blottest , RAT, CAT

2.4.5.4- SOCIOLOGY:
Social class, social groups – family, types of family, types of marriages,communities and Nations and institutions.

2.4.6- ETHICS
Introduction: There is a definite shift now from the traditional patient and doctor relationship and delivery of dental care. With the advances in science and technology and the increasing needs of the patient, their families and community, there is a concern for the health of the community as a whole. There is a shift to greater accountability to the society. Dental specialists like the other health professionals are confronted with many ethical problems. It is therefore absolutely necessary for each and every one in the health care delivery to prepare themselves to deal with these problems. To accomplish this and develop human values Council desires that all the trainees undergo ethical sensitization by lectures or discussion on ethical issues, discussion of cases with animportant ethical component.

Course content:
Introduction to ethics –
- What is ethics?
- What are values and norms?
- How to form a value system in one’s personal and professional life?
- Declaration of Helsinki, WHO declaration of Geneva, International code of ethics, D.C.I. Code of ethics.
The patient as a person.
Right to be respected
Truth and confidentiality
Autonomy of decision
Doctor Patient relationship

Profession Ethics –
Contract and confidentiality
Charging of fees, fee splitting
Prescription of drugs
Over-investigating the patient
Malpractice and negligence
Research Ethics –
Animal and experimental research/humanness
Human experimentation
Human volunteer research-informed consent
Drug trials
Ethical workshop of cases
Gathering all value factors
Gathering all value factors

2.4.6.1- Recommended Books:
• Law and Ethics in Dentistry J. Sear

 

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